Diagnostic criteria for intellectual disabilities (ID) have been developed by two professional organisations. Each has its own merits:
1. The American Psychiatric Association (APA), which publishes the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, APA 2013);
2. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD formerly AAMR).
A summary of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 are helpful in identifying developmental disorders:
1. Deficits in intellectual functioning: This includes various mental abilities:
Reasoning; Problem-solving; Planning; Abstract thinking; Judgment;
ability to learn in school via traditional teaching methods ( Academic learning);
the ability to learn through experience, trial and error, and observation ( Experiential learning).These mental abilities are measured by an IQ test. A score of approximately two standard deviations below average represents a significant cognitive deficit. These scores would occur at about 2.5% of the population. Or stated differently, 97.5% of people of the same age and culture would score higher. The tests used to measure IQ must be standardized and culturally appropriate. This is typically an IQ score of 70 or below.
9843-4 Head Occipital-frontal circumference
3137-7 Body height Measured
F81.9 Developmental Disorder
- Knowledge acquisition disability
- Learning disability
- Learning disorder
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