Craniosynostosis stands for too early bone formation (ossification) of the fibrous sutures in the infant’s skull. These sutures are designed to let the skull grow in the normal shape. When closed too soon there will be a change of the growth pattern of the skull. Because the skull cannot expand perpendicular to the fused suture, it compensates by growing more in the direction parallel to the closed sutures. Sometimes the resulting growth pattern provides the necessary space for the growing brain but results in abnormal head shape and abnormal facial features. In cases in which the compensation does not effectively provide enough space for the growing brain, craniosynostosis results in increased intracranial pressure leading possibly to visual impairment, sleeping impairment, eating difficulties, or an impairment of mental development combined with a significant reduction in IQ. When needed, 3-dimensional cranial topographical photo, skull x-rays, or ultrasound imaging is almost always sufficient for definitive diagnosis. Computed tomography scanning should not be used to diagnose plagiocephaly, but it may be necessary to rule out craniosynostosis
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is known as the most common hereditary metabolic rickets with a prevalence of 1:20,000- 60,000. Manifestations are bone deformities (particularly bowing of...